New Engines Aiming for 60% Thermal Efficiency

Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Rising to the Post-HEV Challenge

Product Details

Language
English
Format
PDF
File Size
1. 65MB
Print Length
34 Pages
Publisher
Nikkei Business Publications,Inc.
Published
May 2014
Delivery
Immedate Download

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Report Description

Internal combustion engines have been steadily evolving throughout their long history, and instead of finally maturing the pace of evolution is merely accelerating. Gasoline engines have achieved a thermal efficiency of almost 40% over the last century or so, and are expected to approach 50% in the next decade. Development is forging ahead on Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines combusting extremely lean mixtures at high compression ratios, turbocharge downsizing, and waste heat recovery, while engines with entirely new configurations and principles of operation are expected to emerge in the pursuit for 60% efficiency. This document examines trends in engines today, including improving combustion and reducing loss.

Part 1: Roadmap to higher thermal efficiency -- Engine key in fuel economy as researchers aim for 45% by 2020 with practical HCCI

Abstract:

Until recently, Japanese domestic CBU automobile manufacturers have been improving fuel economy outside the engine, such as through electrification, but at last real work has started on evolving the engine itself. Competition to improve mileage between hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) manufacturers is intensifying, and boosting the fuel economy of the engine is critical in the overseas market. As CO2 emission regulations get tougher in Europe, engine peak thermal efficiency seems likely to hit about 45% by 2020.

Part 2: Toyota and Honda fight for top slot -- Gasoline engines approach 40%, diesels downsizing fast

Abstract:

The gasoline engines attaining the highest thermal efficiency today combine extremely low frictional loss with Atkinson cycle technology and a high compression ratio. Many manufacturers have been extending existing technology in an effort to boost efficiency, but until recently few Japanese firms were combining smaller displacement with turbocharging to accomplish the same end: turbocharge downsizing. The situation has changed dramatically.

Part 3: The engines of tomorrow -- Focus shifts to slashing cooling and exhaust losses; engineers look to new engine designs and new principles

Abstract:

Current engine designs can still boost efficiency through lean burning and thermal insulation, and research continues into exhaust heat recovery to further cut exhaust loss. Extensions of existing technology, though, are unlikely to get further than about 50%, and so engineers are looking at entirely new types of engine in search of an unheard-of 60% efficiency. New structures and new principles of operation will drive engines to achieve efficiency on a par with fuel cells.

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Table of contents

Part 1: Roadmap to higher thermal efficiency -- Engine key in fuel economy as researchers aim for 45% by 2020 with practical HCCI

Abstract:

Until recently, Japanese domestic CBU automobile manufacturers have been improving fuel economy outside the engine, such as through electrification, but at last real work has started on evolving the engine itself. Competition to improve mileage between hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) manufacturers is intensifying, and boosting the fuel economy of the engine is critical in the overseas market. As CO2 emission regulations get tougher in Europe, engine peak thermal efficiency seems likely to hit about 45% by 2020.

Figures:

Fig. 1: Roadmap to Higher Thermal Efficiency
Fig. 2: Engine loss

Part 2: Toyota and Honda fight for top slot -- Gasoline engines approach 40%, diesels downsizing fast

Abstract:

The gasoline engines attaining the highest thermal efficiency today combine extremely low frictional loss with Atkinson cycle technology and a high compression ratio. Many manufacturers have been extending existing technology in an effort to boost efficiency, but until recently few Japanese firms were combining smaller displacement with turbocharging to accomplish the same end: turbocharge downsizing. The situation has changed dramatically.

Figures:

Fig. 1: Toyota's 2AR-FSE engine
Fig. 2: Honda's LFA engine
Fig. 3: Technologies behind the 2AR-FSE
Fig. 4: LFA engine with Variable valve Timing and lift Electronic Control system (VTEC)
Fig. 5: EGR cooler in the 2AR-FSE engine
Fig. 6: LFA engine intake port design
Fig. 7: FHI's 1.6-L horizontally opposed direct-injection DIT engine
Fig. 8: Large EGR cooler
Fig. 9: Nissan's QR25DER engine
Fig. 10: QR25DER intake manifold
Fig. 11: Honda's i-DTAC 1.6 engine
Fig. 12: Constituent technology in the i-DTEC 1.6 engine
Fig. 13: Dual EGR systems

Part 3: The engines of tomorrow -- Focus shifts to slashing cooling and exhaust losses; engineers look to new engine designs and new principles

Abstract:

Current engine designs can still boost efficiency through lean burning and thermal insulation, and research continues into exhaust heat recovery to further cut exhaust loss. Extensions of existing technology, though, are unlikely to get further than about 50%, and so engineers are looking at entirely new types of engine in search of an unheard-of 60% efficiency. New structures and new principles of operation will drive engines to achieve efficiency on a par with fuel cells.

Figures:

Fig. 1: Mazda's evolving internal combustion engine
Fig. 2: Efficiency of HCCI engine developed by Mazda
Fig. 3: Difficulties in expanding operational region for HCCI engines
Fig. 4: Toyota's Stirling engine prototype
Fig. 5: Daihatsu's thermoelectric converter
Fig. 6: Split-cycle engine principle of operation
Fig. 7: Prototypes split-cycle engine
Fig. 8: New compression principle developed by Waseda University
Fig. 9: Simulation results
Fig. 10: Experimental system to collide airstreams
Fig. 11: Prototype engine appearance
Fig. 12: Principle of operation of vehicular/home-use engine

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